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Capitals of the Persian Empire
trip length: 13 days
overnight:
Tehran (2) Hamadan (1) Kermanshah (1) Ahvaz (2) Shiraz (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
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Ancient and Islamic Iran
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Tehran (1) Shiraz (3) Yazd (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
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Highlights of Ancient Iran
اtrip length: 10 days
overnight:
Tehran (1) Ahvaz (2) Shiraz (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
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Capitals of the Persian Empire
trip length: 13 days
overnight:
Tehran (2) Hamadan (1) Kermanshah (1) Ahvaz (2) Shiraz (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
pic
Ancient and Islamic Iran
اtrip length: 11 days
overnight:
Tehran (1) Shiraz (3) Yazd (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
pic
Highlights of Ancient Iran
trip length: 10 days
overnight:
Tehran (1) Ahvaz (2) Shiraz (2) Isfahan (3) Tehran (1)
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History of Iran timeline, Hakhamaneshian

History Of Achaemenidae
First Era of Persia

Introduction

Persia are also of Aryan race people whose time of migration to Iran is not known. According to statements of Assyrian kings the Persia like the Medians have been under ruling of assyria for a long time as well. One of Assyrian kings, ruling during the 9th century (B.C.) boasted that he had made obedient about 27 Persia kings, and it is well-known that at the era of Sar Gon Shalm Nasar, the king of Assyra, was ruler from 731 to 713 B.C., and also at the time of Assyra Hiddin , the Persia Kings had been ruled as satellite of Assyra. After that, Persia released from yoke of Assyra and followed the Medes. It means that Achaemenid rulers, who had power here, were satellite of Medes. Herodot states: Persia have divided into 6 urban and rural residential groups and 14 tribal groups, and Achaemenid family is counted one of the most noble clan means Pasargadees clan. First Daryoush on Biston inscription says: I am the 9th king of Achaemenidian dynasty. According to the Herodot writings and documents obtained the pedigree of Great Cyrus and sequence of Achaemenidea kings up to Daryoush is as follows:
Achaemenidae About 730 B.C.
1-Cheish Pash
2-Kamboujieh
3-Cyrus
4-Chish Pash
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Anzali branch         Persia branch
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
5-Cyrus             Arya Ramn
6-Kamboujieh         Arsham (Arsam)
7-The Great Cyrus         Wishtasp
8-Kamboujieh         First Daryoush
In accordance with this table, Daryoush is the 9th king of the Achaemenidian dynasty, and inscriptions of Second and Third Ardeshir confirm this point, since Wishtasp and Arsam are not understood as of them. But what events had been occurred that Persia captured Ilam, and as a consequent a branch of Achaemenidan dynasty was established there is obscured. Maybe this guess is near to the truth that after weakening of Ilam due to heavy wars Persia overthrown Ilam rulership at 645 B.C., and established a new kingdom in Anzan. In any case, 2nd Cheish Pash could be the king of Anzan and Pars in agreement with this opinion.

First Era of Persia
Achaemenid Kings
First-Great Cyrus

Revolt of Ikhtovoigo:

Babelees have written about this event in brief, and some of Greek historians, although done in details but with controversial. In any way Herodot states:
"Medes king dreamed of one grip vine grew out of his daughter's abdomen, named Mandana and extended over all the Asia. Maji interpreted this dream as to that the she delivered a boy will capture whole of the Asia. The king thought that to marry her daughter with a man will not have any desire to rebel, and thus candidated Kamboujeih , king of Pars (and now named Anzan) that was the satellite of Medes. The boy delivered and the king ordered to his minister to kill him and the minister request from his shepherd to do so, and since at that time the shepherd' wife delivered a dead child, she hindered killing Cyrus and adopted him as her son. At the age of 12 years he became peer of ministers sons. Once the boy quarreled with peers and they brought his complaint before the king. At the first glance the king became wonderful of his bravery and dignity, and after inquiry king understood that this boy is his grandchild. Apparently king became pleasant, but after that he send Cyrus and her mother to Pars and the refractory minister made punished. And in hidden king ordered to kill minister's son and made the minister to have from his son's meat in a party and showed hand and foot of his killed son crossed in a container. Cyrus was going to be trained hoarse riding and archery in his own territory till he reached to the age of puberty and united the Persian families and revolted against the king. In the first attack Cyrus failed but he did not despair after the first defeat and increased his will. Once the Medes king dispatch an army by command of that minister had been punished to fight Cyrus, and the minister find the time appropriate and apparently went toward Cyrus so that to revenge Medes king for his son. After this event Cyrus empowered and appealed several Medes governed families until the Ikhtovigo himself went to Pars with a corps with intention to Cyrus. A serious war rised near Pasargad and Cyrus became victor and he was captured. This event obviously states that the Persians and even Median people were unpleasant from Medes king. Nebonid, king of Babel describes this event as follows:
"The king of Medes gathered an army and went to fight to Cyrus, but his army refracted from his commands and thus Ikhtovigo was captured by his army and delivered to Cyrus. After that Cyrus captured Hamadan and obtained gold, silver and high value of wealth in hand and brought all the booties to Anshan". Capture of Hamadan has occurred in 550 B.C.

Capture of Lidieh:

After conquering Hamadan, the great territory of Medes was under rule of Cyrus and enlargement of Pars caused disturbances of 3 great governments of that time means Lidieh, Babel and Egypt. They entered into negotiation to develop an union against Cyrus. In Lidieh, son of Aliat Cresus attempted to civilization and development of his capital city named Sard up to a degree that Greek named it as Golden Sard. Crersus' wealth and valuable objects were so great that had gazed eyes of all Greek famous persons and nominaries invited to there including Solon and Bias, and so on.
Since Lidians were not fighter men, Cresus intended to appeal cities and colonies of Greece located at the Asia Minor, and initially united with Melateh city and afterward other cities so that in critical conditions to use their powers.
This was status of Lidieh while the news of dropping great government of Medes and empowering Pars was propagated throughout the western Asia and this event frightened that time governments. King of Lidieh was in two thoughts whether he should attack to Iran or to content with a defensive war. Finally he dispatch a person to Delf temple, which was very honourable and a holy place and request from that time oracles known as Pythie a question:
"If I attack what will be the result?"
A reply was sent ambiguous and with dual-aspect meaning. Pythie meant: " If the king crossed the Halis river, a great government shall be destroyed".
Lidian king understanding of the purpose of oracle was great Pars government, and then initiated to negotiate with a Greek governments named Spart and attracted its agreement.
Also Babel and Egypt were joined with Lidieh and then Cresus intended to fight to Iran and captured the high altitude place named PeTeRium which was the past capital of Hits.
In the fall, a hard war occurred between Lidian and Persian armies that Lidieh resistance failed. And since winter came the Lidian king thought Iranian army would not brave to fight territory of Lidieh in winter and by this idea discharged his army and assumed that the allies armies (Egypt and Babel) will arrive in the next year and Pars work will go to end, but Cyrus immediately entered to negotiate with government of Babel and made a treaty of peace with Nebonid and then left for Sard. At last a war occurred near the capital city of Lidieh with Cyrus, in that the horses were frightened from camels that arranged in front to the hosts by order of Cyrus and the war was terminated by victory of Persia and failure of Lidieh (546 B.C.).
Herodet narrates that Cyrus at firs wanted to burn the king of Lidieh in fire but later he found admonition and blandished him: The reason of this admonition was that during firing woods, Cresus shouted: "Oh Solon Solon"!. Cyrus asked him about and he narrated that Solon, the famous Greek legislator story when he arrived in Sard, and went on when he observed my treasury and wealth I asked him " Who is happy in his view and I was certain that he called my name, but he replied: Until a man has not passed away it would not possible to judge whether he has been happy or not, and I now found out the exact meaning of her comment. This caused the Cyrus to be warned and extinguished the fire. There is some controversy about this narration as to that according Persia's beliefs fire was holey and contamination of it to a sin has not permission. However this narration can also be true because Greek historians of next centuries have mentioned it too, but a doubt arisen when you become acknowledged that they say these narratives from news of ancient books without mentioning their resources.
Conquering of Greek colonies in the Asia Minor:
Ancient Greek persons were Indian and European people who have migrated into a territory located at the south of Balkan peninsula with name of Greece, over an unknown era, and they had dominated over Pelasags. Meanwhile Pelasags has created an advanced civilization from west sea expanding to the ancient Greek in an unknown age, and also about 10 th century of B.C. some people known Doriens, one of Greek tribes, invaded Peloponnese peninsula, made a huge number of Greeks emigrated.
In this way Greek colonies developed in the Asia Minor, and Greek cities were together with peace with lidians after several fighting, because Lidains shared in religion and civilization and industries with Greeks. But when Lidieh was captured by Persia, the Greeks became terrible very much because of high difference being governed between them. Before the fall of Sard, Cyrus had proposed to Greeks being united with him and they rejected, and now they dispatch messengers before Cyrus asking to revise the treaty of Lidieh king and Cyrus didn't reply and in stead brought this saying: Near sea side a pipe player thought if I play the pipe the fish would dancing undoubtedly, but no effect of dance he observed what so long he played, thus then take a net and threw into sea water and when the fish had fluctuation over and below the net he said you are dancing now uselessly, you would must dance when I were playing the pipe. By this saying Cyrus made them aware that the time had passed for their request. About this colonies he treated such below: First made a contract of peace with the metropolis Milt and signed the treaty previously promised between this metropolis and Lidieh king. After that he dominated upon Greeks islands and all of the Asia Minor cities such as Lesbos and Chios.
Some of Greek people of colonies were seeking help from Spart and Spart government dispatch a messenger before Cyrus and intimidated that if these colonies being treated badly we would not tolerate. Cyrus replied: "I had never afraid of people gathering in the field telling lie to each other under taking an oath, If I survived I would treat you such that you in stead of talking about Ionians, going weeping and groaning from your own hopelessness!.
Shortly after conquering Sard Cyrus returned to Iran and charged the responsibility of conquering of other portions of the Asia Minor such as Phrygie, Cilycie, and lycie and Greeks colonies with his sirdars. In 545 B.C. all of the Asia Minor was under rulership of Persia, and Cyrus appointed a separate commander for each so that they did not unite and not find high power. Conquering of Eastern Territories: High speed of invasion of Cyrus in Lidieh did not left a while to Babel and or Egypt for mobilization, and now they each are waiting to be invaded by Cyrus army. But Cyrus did not notice to Babel at once and went for territories located at the east of Pars and Medes. We are not aware of qualities of his wars at those vicinities. What is known is that during 8 years he was involving military expedition and world conquering at the east and north of Iran and advanced up to the Seihoun river from north and erected a city with own name there (the name of this city at the Eskandar era was "the furthest city of Cyrus). It is assumed that its location had been at the site of present Oratappeh). Next he proceeded from the east up to the Send river, and after strengthening the bases of his government, he faced to Babel. Some investigators believe that military expeditions by Cyrus have been carried out orienting to the east and northern east and after conquering Babel.

Conquering of Babel:

Capture of babel appeared much difficult work because strength of towers of this city was widely known. Nevertheless, Cyrus intended to conquer it and in spring, 539 B.C. the Iranian army crossed the Dejleh river. Three rulers governed upon Babel over 6 years, after Bokhtonnasr passed away in 561 B.C.. In 555 B.C. the Babel' clergy elected a Babelian merchant with name of Nabonid as a king. This person was not who be able to protect and secure Babel in such critical situation. As written he was very interested in antiques, and some explorations were made in ancient temples of Babel and some inscriptions were taken out. About conquering of Babel by Cyrus there are two narratives, one from Herodet and Bani Israeil people that were captives in Babel and the other is based on documents have been achieved through excavations of Babel and investigations there.
In agreement with the former narrative, the event of conquering Babel is as follows: King of Babel who was involving in a war in vicinity of this city with Persia failed and took refuge to Babel. In that time the head of Babel army was delivered to the king' son named Baltashar. Capturing this city was impossible with attack and by the siege it lasted for a long time, since Babelian owned an extensive and vast lands inner the city and cultivated. So upon order of Cyrus the Forat river course diverted and after shallow of the water, Iranian army arrived the Babel (538 B.C.) But no killing or rebel was carried out in this city and Cyrus treated very kindly with residents.
Agreed with Babelian resources, Nebonid brought the statute of a god (Ovur) to Babel and offended the followers of the god of Babelians Balmardouk. They made a connivance with Cyrus and when Dejleh was shallow he diverse the course of both rivers and entered into a land located between Babel and Bokhtonnasr dam, and afterward he left for the north and crossed the communication between Babelian army and the city and then conquered them. One of contemporaries says that Cyrus afford tranquilization to the hearts of residents. After conquering Babel all territories affiliated to it were under rule of Cyrus including Palestine and Fenighieh.
Two Finighian cities know as Sour and Seida were of the most famous cities of that world. Cyrus treated very kindly with people of Bani Israel who were in captive of Bokhtonnasr: He returned the Golden and silver dishes which Bokhtonnasr has brought from Baitolmoghaddas and permitted them to return Palestine and reconstruct the ancient temples distracted by Assyria, and erect a new temple.
Upon this permit, 42,000 Israeilian people accompanied with 7,000 male and female slaves moved toward Palestine and reconstructed the Baitolmoghaddas. However a huge dispute generated between people who remained in Palestine and who had entered the Babel soon and Cyrus thought fit that the construction of new temple being postponed. Nevertheless from Bani Israel prophets narratives it is found that this people highly respected to Cyrus.
The Cyrus statement drawn from Babel excavations and now is famous as Cyrus cylinder includes the following subjects: In this statement the king has called himself as a servant of great god of Babel Mardakh (Mardoukh), and states that after bringing the statute of ovur god to Babel, the Mardoukh elected him. He grasp the Cyrus' hand, king of Anshan, He candidated Cyrus for dynasty of all the world, and Cyrus added: "When I entered into Tintir in complete tranquillity, I sat on the bed of dynasty and arrived into the palace while I heard hallows of pleasure of people". After conquering of Babel and Shamat and Palestina as well as Fenighieh cities and so on Cyrus returned to Iran and attempted to a military expedition to the east. But narratives in this respect are controversial. Herodet says: In war with Massagetes residing between Caspian sea and Aral sea Cyrus was killed. It is mentioned that Cyrus request Massagetes Queen for marriage and she replied in an offensive manner and war started, and then the queen's son became captive and attempted to suicide. In the next war, Cyrus was wounded and passed away and the queen ordered to throw out his cut head in a dish full of blood and addressing to the cut head said: You was who that did not satisfied from bloodthirsty, now drink of this blood so much to be full!"
Boros had written that Cyrus was killed in a war with tribe of Daha (one of Seka tribes) in vicinity of Gorgan. Ketzias says: He was wounded in war with Sakaha and passed away due it. Her body was buried in Pasargad.

Characteristics of Cyrus:

Historians believe that he was a wise, kindly and iron will king. He went on the work started by his hands and did not left a work incomplete. In difficult and complicated problems he attached to wisdom than power, and in contrary to kings of Assyria and Babel or so on he treated kindly with people. His kindly treating with conquered kings was so much that they got Cyrus as a sincere friend and assisted him in critical instances. He didn't bother with religion or beliefs of nations, rather respect them, such that after conquering Babel returned what has been plundered from followers of different religions. No killing or plunder occurred in cities conquered by him. In contrast to Assyria kings who proud, as their inscriptions reveal, that that territory was destroyed by us such that no sound of hen or dog was heard from it (we witnessed the similar manner in Ilam). When people saw Cyrus' behavior and compared it with that of kin was usual in that time, they knew him a extraordinary creative sent from God. This respectful king produced an moral evolution in the ancient world accompanied by a new manner of dealing with conquered nations, and perhaps it is the reason that he was considered the interface between two parts from 4 parts of the ancient time.
Meanwhile about Cyrus it must be said that he is one of the two or three historic personalities in the ancient time whose name is very familiar to minds of people and nations of our era. One cause is that Prophets of Bani Israel all have praised him and the followers of the religion believe in wholly Pentateuch, has heard the name of this king from childhood and are familiar with it.

Kamboujieh :

Cyrus had to sons from Kasadan, one called Kamboujieh governed over Babel and at time of Cyrus absent governed on behalf of him over Iran. And the other called Bardia governed over Kharazm, West, Part and Kerman. He was popularized. And Kamboujieh killed him secretly. He intended to overcome Persia, but some districts experienced commotion, therefore he calmed them out. And set out to Egypt. King of Egypt united with Greek isles in Western Sea and Jabbar so as to dispatch Navy for contribution. And to confront with Kamboujieh.
Kamboujieh concluded a convention with Arabia chieftains to supply water along road so as to accelerate expedition to Egypt.
The first confrontation shown up at Peluse and in Egypt was invaded. Initially, Kamboujieh treated with Egyptins according to Cyrus advise and took on king gowns and people appointed him as a Pharaoh. After that Kamboujieh set out to for Napata and Ethiopia, therefore the Iranian army passed the Nile river, and reached to the deserts, and ran into constrained in field of feeds, therefore experienced heavy casualties and forced to return Egypt. Herodot pointed out that Kamboujieh developed epilepsy with Melancholia, and treated people unwisely. And killed her sister called Roxana. Hence it must be said that Kamboujieh behavior was initially consistent with Cyrus the great, but turned into violence. Kamboujieh in 523 B.C. was stabbed in Egbatana and passed away.
False Bardia Event
That event inscribed in Biston, and illustrated as follow: This was what I acted after appointed as a king. Kamboujieh was son of Cyrus and his offsprings and his brother was Bardi. He killed him but people sensed and assaulted him, and he was killed. Therefore I killed Geomati Mogh with contribution of Masses. Because God assisted me in killing. I experiences a lot of constraints to rise my clan. Herodot states that Geomata Mogh treated people kindly after governership and exempted taxes for 3 years. Cyrus treated with Geomat passionately and made oath in order to enter the palace, however guards and nobles did not confronted them and finally the Mogh was killed by Darus. Stable heads of Darus carried with horse to appointed site and his horse cried first and caused him appointed as a king according the previous contract.

Chapter 3-Darus the great

Historians believed that the least king experienced constraints as much as Darus did. His initiatives inscribed on Facet of Biston are as follows: One of previous king offspirng called Atrin raised against Darus. In Bebel Bokhtolnasr deserved made riot against Darus. A man named Martia invaded Shoush but people killed him. A man called Farfartish, offspring of Hovakhshatarah raised against, but Medes appointed him as a king. After that Darus send out an officer to Armanestan to calm there. As a result Darus intended to conquer Bebel. After conquering of Bebel by Darus, he wined over Medes army, and Farfartish hanged in Bebel. Then Darus left for Egypt, 517 B.C. Since there was severe commotion over there. Afterward he killed the governor and participated in rites as the Holy Ox Loss. He reconstructed the trade roads and connected the Red Sea to the Western Sea means to India.
People mad riots due to heavy taxes. Darus killed the many local leaders.

Darus Organizations :

He founded Achaemenids states also brought about some organizations to control the extensive country easily, supplying welfare for masses, and divided the states into a few districts by appointing governors. Castle managed by Beigis (Arg pats).
-In addition, some inspectors were dispatching to check the facilities yearly. And called them eyes and ears of the king.
-The federal decrees distributed immediately.
-The significant roads lied between Sard and Shush extended to Capital measuring 2400 km.
-Darus organized the army called Javidan
-Darus defined taxes in cash and in kind and reduced significantly.
-Darus connected the two seas mentioned previously and developed business in Egypt and Shamat by sea.
-He minted coins with high carat.

Conquering of Punjab and Sand :

Darus conquered Punjab and Sand in India. He imported many billions of gold and this event became as an origin of the history:

Budda preach and Darus journey :
Darus built modules to search shores of body of waters.
Conquering of Trakieh and Macedonia
Darus dealt with control of Saka, they were Aryans, and settled in Russia. Herodot pointed out that Darus dispatched a Herald with a message to the Asia minor. Sakka demolished the bridges so that to hinder progress of Darus for return, but he turned back to Sard through Europe. But 80 thousands soldiers left there to conquer Trakieh and Macedonia. Then they proceeded to Adriatic sea.

Greek War :

European Greeks encouraged Darus to attack Greek. The description of the event is as follows:
In that time one third of lands in Asia minor was in control of Iran and the other 2/3 were composed of states mostly from civics. Athena and Sparts were of the most famous ones. Although they were afraid of being neighborhood of Iran nevertheless they received some support from Iran in dilemmas. Iranian army set out to capture Athena but Militard understood the plan and forced to repel the army. After that the commander who sees that situation turned back to the Asia minor. That event revealed contradiction since displacement of 100,000 to 300,000 soldiers with related packages by 600 vessels is difficult. And Greeks ambivalently exaggerated and seemed as story. Darus was rational and passionate man because he selected agents on account of capacity and potentiality. He set up kingdom with previous calculations according to present environment like Eskandar, Solukia and Sasanid at the time of Darus Iran expanded territoriality. Some of investigators counted him as a the great king of Iran and compared him with Anovshirvan.

Khashayar Sha :

Some proponents assumed that Artebarn was born from his first wife and is appointed as vicar, but contrary to this idea he selected the son of Athos, daughter of Cyrus the great, as named Khashyarsha. He crowned at 34 years old. Initially he calmed down the commotion on Egypt (484 B.C.). Finally he Surrounded Babel and then the treasures confiscated for conquerors. At last he prepared an army for invading Greece. Oppressors with help of defuncts joined him. Then they assembled at site called Kapadokieh in Asia Minor. From different states about 5 million soldiers totally for assaulting Greece with contribution of Navy from Egypt, Fenighids in Asia Minor stayed at alert. Iranian army through a bridge built by boats to be dispatched to Europe. Infantry units with armored vehicles moved toward the assigned mission with accompany of court of Achameanid.
In addition to bridges a tunnel was build at site of Athos mountains so as to protect them against storm. Greeks supposed that the confrontation with Iranian army may be void of any consequences, however, a man called Themistocle encouraged people to prepare themselves to repel Iranian army. Initially Sparts united with him and the united civics reached to 31, then captured the strait of thermopyles with 7,000 forces. Iranian army proceeded through the land so their finally close striate of Thermopyle attacked to that site bravely and suppressed by Sparts since they equipped with heavy weapons. At last Iranian army by passed the strait and challenged the commanders of Sparts from the flank. At the other line the navy proceeded and succeeded with heavy casualty reciprocally. The naval challenge is known as war of Artemisium, impressed of war locality (488 B.C.). Following conquer of strait of Thermopyle, the way was paved towards different districts of Greek. At the time of progression into Greece, Khashar returned to Iran and left 200,000 agile soldiers so as to terminate confrontation with Greeks. Whilst Ghartajeneh challenging with Greeks in Cecil isles defeated by Jabbar. Following a war of Salamin, Greeks attacked Iranian navy and demolished it, and conquered Boghazet Dardanel canal at European shore (478 B.C.). After that Greek navy succeeded.

Reasons for Iranian Failure in War
It can be explained by this rationale that principally commitment of Iran to this battle against Greeks is not logical. Because Iran was so powerful and wealthy country which consequently Greek affected indirectly due to those requirements. Since Iranian navy was too weak for marine battle. Secondly, the selection of Salamin as a site of battle was a sole mistake that led to failure of Iran.

Some factors caused the failure of Iran like:

1-The worst defend weapons comparing to Greek.
2-Armored units of Iran accustomed to extensive plains of Iranian territories. Therefore, they failed to resist at bad lands of Greece. Eunuch of Khashayar sha called Merdad, with head of guards killed the king and Darus, his son.
As it is depicted, Ardavan on behalf of Wishtasb, the son of Khashayarsha governed as vicar, but he was killed by Ardeshir the first and he crowned.

The Characteristics of Khashayar Sha :

According to Greek historians he was with good appearance but unstable personality and lascivious. He couldn't be able to off set his failure due to women interferences with state affairs and Shush court dissociation.

Ardeshir the First (Artakh Shatar) :

Ardeshir the First, son of Khashayar Sha crowned. Greeks called him long-handed (Arta Keserses). In Egypt some commotions commenced and surrounded Iranian army in Memfis in Egypt. Greeks forgot the Sypress isles. A convention was made on freedom of domestic affairs of Greeks and solely the Iranian trade vessels ferry off in Greek ports But that convention was worsted for Iran. Because Iran did not need to this convention due to its authority at sea. On the other hand Ardeshir was powerful to repel Greeks in Asia minor. At time of his ruling, the leader of Salamin battle visited the court of Iran so as to encourage Ardeshir to interfere with cause of Greek. But he failed and he ruled over some civics of Asia Minor under leadership of Iran.

Khashayar Sha the Second :

He crowned following his father but was killed by Soghdianos after passing 45 days.

Soghdianos :

He ruled over six months but was killed by Vahouk called Darus the second and Greeks named him Okhos and also named him (Notosh).

Darus the Second :

He married with his maternal aunt. There was no craft she did not draft over atmosphere of Darus court. At the time of rulership of that king, the battle of Poloponz extended among Greeks critically. Cyrus, the son of Darus, the governor of Asia Minor released significant aids to commander of Spartian army so as to defeat Greek navy at battle of Aegos-Potamos. Iranian progress was under reasonable factors played by two governors of Asia Minor, Tissafern and Farnabaz, to recede some Greek isles. But the Iranian court afflicted with internal disputes and dissociated the status of court.

Ardeshir the Second (Arta Khoshatr) :

The main name of that king was Arashkh, but following crowning turned to Ardeshir. Greeks called him Men Mon (Genuine). Cyrus, the son of Darus the Second, governor of Asia Minor, intended to deprive Ardeshir the Second from the crown and he felt he approached to Spart and effective army set up under tutor ship of Greeks.
During crowning of Ardeshir at Pasagad, Cyrus aimed to assassinate the king but he warned and hanged Cyrus. But Parizad hugged him and wrapped her ringlet rounded his neck so that to save him and the king bashed him. A battle between Ardeshir and Cyrus led happened at site of Cunnaxa and as a result the army of Cyrus disappointed and broken away. Finally Ardeshir ruled over the country. Xenophon-Anabase pointed out to his withdraw and explained the current affairs perfectly. Following contribution of Sparts to Cyrus the relationship between court of Iran and state of Spart turned worse and Athens approached to Iran. Tisafern, the previous governor of Asia Minor, returned to there to control the Greek civics in Asia Minor and caused the Spart states disappointed and dispatched his army to Asia Minor, and Iran undermined his plan. The battle of Teb with Spart extended to 6 years without any dominator and oppressed. But Athena defeated the Spart navy with Iranian support. Some historians pointed out that the Iranian measures counted as off set for failures of Khashayar Sha that truce named Antalsid peace. Commotion and riots set out in Egypt, Asia Minor and Sypress due to federal weakness. Salamin civics in Cypress appointed a king and Iran court approved and accredited, Egypt ruled independently.
During rulership of Ardeshir, a lot of crimes occurred:
Parizad was intoxicated and bashed to Babel and Ardeshir, the vicar, assassinated. Ardeshir died of depression due to his son assassination at the age of 86 years of old (361 B.C.).

Ardeshir the third :

He crowned at the time of dissociation and commotion of Iran. Therefore he applied whatever tools to control and to manage the state and assassinated all kins so that no body to claim rulership. Then he calmed down the present disorders. At that time all districts claimed self-ruling and disorders and Achameanid approaching to downfall.
Okhost set off to Syria with an army to conquer Seida but people attempted to mass suicide due to deep disappointment and put the town on fire, and Ardeshir witnessed ruins of town. Following that Cypress gave up. Then Okhost set off to Egypt and conquered it with contribution of Men Tor form Greek. But Artabaz, governor of Asia Minor, turned to as a opposser. Finally, he received clemency by Men Tor advise. Ardeshir governorship calmed down Iranian western districts, except for the Eastern districts riots and commotions like India and Middle Asia.
Ardeshir, a prominent and powerful man, following Cyrus crowned, and if he sustained more he would suppress Macedonia from powerfulness, since Greeks supported Iran and Demosthene, the prominent preacher, underpinned the relationship between Greek and Iran.

Arshak :

Arshak crowned following deceased Ardeshir, but was assassinated by the said eunuch (339 B.C.). Greeks renamed him Oarses following that the said eunuch appointed one of grand sons of Darus the second as king, and called him Darus. Greeks renamed him Codomanne. In history he called on as Darus the third.

Darus the Third :

He crowned in 336 B.C and the eunuch Bagoaus was killed by him. He urged Darus to act as he likes. Eskandar approached to Iran at the era of that king but following passing away of Darus the Third, the Achameanid system is exterminated.
Some of authors believe that Achamaenid state witnessed rapid dissociation but at the era of Ardeshir the Third the present system was manipulated under capacity of Eunuch Bagoas, if Darus the Second didn't assassinate him, it would suppress the Eskandar' invasion and Achameanid kingdom didn't witness extermination.

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